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1889 April 20 Adolfus (Adolf) Hitler is born at Braunau-am-Inn, Austria. According to his birth certificate, he was born at six o'clock in the evening and baptized two days later by Father Ignaz Probst at the local Catholic Church. (Payne)
(Note: Hitler's father, Alois, was a 51-year-old Austrian customs official of questionable birth. His mother, Klara, was his father's niece and former servant -- twenty-three years his junior. Married in 1885; their first three children, two boys and a girl, had all died before Adolf was born.)
1889 June An antisemitic conference held at Bochum, Germany, draws a number of representatives from France and Austria-Hungary, including Georg von Schönerer (Schoenerer), and soon leads to the foundation of two German antisemitic political parties, the Deutsch-Soziale Partei led by Max Liebermann von Sonnenberg and the Antisemitische Volkspartei under peasant-rousing demagog, Otto Böckel. (P.G.J. Pulzer; Roots)
1889 August Rosa Luxemburg, leading Socialist theorist and founder of the German Communist party, is forced into exile in Switzerland. She had been born into a prosperous Jewish business family in Russian Poland and was engaged in revolutionary activity from 1887.
1890 March 9 Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov is born at Kukarka, now Sovetsk, 500 miles east of Moscow. His original family name was Scriabin.
1890 March 18 German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck is dismissed from his post by Kaiser (emperor) Wilhelm II, who is said to be jealous of the aging chancellors fame and ability.
1890 July Heligoland is ceded to Germany by Britain's Lord Salisbury.
1890 September The Pan-German League (Alldeutscher Verband) is founded by Alfred Hugenberg and other super-Nationalists. Its total membership during the Second Reich never reached more than 40,000, but the names of its members read like a "who's who" of German academic, industrial and political life. Its primary focus was unification of all German-speaking peoples into one empire; members from Austria-Hungary composed a large percentage of its membership. Racial mystics such as Lanz von Liebenfels and Guido von List were active and popular within its ranks, and the Pan-Germans became one of the most effective groups in spreading hatred and fear of Jews, demanding restrictions on the Jewish press, enactment of laws barring Jews from key professions, and prohibitions against "mixed" marriages.
1890 November 22 Charles Joseph de Gaulle is born at Lille, France.
1891 Ernest Krauss brings the swastika to the attention of a number of mysterious groups, both in Britain and Germany.
1891 April Father Berenger Sauniere, parish priest at Rennes-le-Chateau, in France, is said to have discovered four ancient parchment texts that contain the complete genealogies of Dagobert II and of the Mergovingian line from the seventh to the seventeenth centuries.
1891 Spring The Blue Star Lodge is founded by Gustav Meyrink in Prague. Meyrink is a close friend and correspondent of Friedrich Eckstein, founder of an influential Theosophical Society in Vienna.
1892 August The Hitler family is transferred by the Austrian customs service to Passau, Germany.
1893 February 24 Guido von List lectures on the ancient cult of Wotan and its priesthood to the nationalist Verein, "Deusche Geschichte." List claims that this extinct religion was the national religion of the Teutons before it was destroyed by Christianity. In time, this ancient priesthood will form the basis of his entire political mythology.
1893 April 7 Allen Welsh Dulles is born in Watertown, New York.
1893 July 31 Adolf Josef Lanz, age 19, becomes a novice at the Cistercian monastery in Heiligenkreuz on the present Austrian-Hungarian border. Lanz was born in Vienna on July 19, 1874, but later claimed to have been born at Messina, Sicily, on May 1, 1872. To mislead astrologers, he said.
1893 August 30 Huey Pierce Long is born near Winnfield, Louisiana.
1893 October 1 "Gotterdammerung" by Guido von List appears in Karl Wolf's East German Review. Wolf is a Pan-German parliamentary deputy and close associate of Georg von Schoenerer.
1893 October 31 "Allerseelen under vorchristliche Totenkult des deutschen Volkes"by Guido von List appear in Karl Wolf's East German Review. (Roots)
1893 November 22 Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich is born in the small village of Kabany, now Novokashirsk, east of Kiev.
1893 Gladstone's second Irish Home Rule Bill is vetoed after a lenghty discussion in the British House of Lords.
1893 Adolf Josef Lanz first meets Guido von List and several members of the wealthy Wannieck family of Vienna at Gars-am-Kamp (A). (Roots)
1893 Georg von Schoenerer reenters Austrian politics. Schoenerer had been convicted of assault in 1888 and deprived of his political rights for five years.
1893 Rosa Luxemburg helps found the anti-nationalist Polish Socialist party while in exile in Switzerland.
1894 January 14 Guido von List publishes "Die deutsche Mythologie." More than a dozen other articles by List appear in the East German Review during 1894. He will be a regular contributor until December 1896.
1894 March 24 Edmund Hitler, Adolf Hitler's younger brother, is born in Passau, Germany, near the Austrian border.
1894 April 17 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev is born in a mud hut in the village of Kalinovka, southwest of Kiev. His father, Sergei, a coal miner, sends Nikita to work in the mines when he is only nine years old.
1894 May A tombstone relief depicting a "Aryan" nobleman treading on an unidentifiable beast is found under the cloister flagstones at Heiligenkreuz. Adolf Josef Lanz, now Father Georg, writes his first published work. In it he interprets the tomstone as an allegorical depiction of the eternal struggle between the forces of good and evil. Lanz soon assimilated current racist ideas into a dualist religion, identifying the blue-eyed, blond-haired "Aryans" as the good principle and the various dark races as the evil. (Berthold von Treun, 1894)
1894 June Koreshism is founded in America by Cyrus R. Teed, who claims that his followers number more than 4,000 initiates. (Pauwels)
1894 October The court-martial of army captain Albert Dreyfus, a Jewish officer, creates a political crisis in France. The evidence presented against Dreyfus is insufficient; nevertheless, he is convicted and sent to Devil's Island for imprisonment.
1894 The Deutsch-Soziale Partei and the Antisemitische Volkspartei are merged into the Deutsch-Soziale Reformpartei. (Pulzer; Roots)
1894 Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Joseph Stalin), age14, enters the Tiflis Theological Seminary. He later says, the discipline there was an impetus toward his revolutionary activism.
1894 Thousands of Armenian men, women and children are massacred in Turkey.
1894 The Bund der Germanen is refounded. It had previously operated under the name Germanenbund from 1886 to 1889 when it was dissolved by the Austrian government. (Roots)
1894 Albert Einstein (b. 1879 in Ulm, Germany), the son of nonobservant Jews, moves with his parents from Munich to Milan, Italy, after the family business (manufacture of electrical apparatus) fails, and officiallyrelinquishes his German citizenship. Within a year, without completing secondary school, he fails an examination that would have allowed him to pursue a course of study leading to a diploma in electrical engineering at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Zurich Polytechnic).
1895 January 24 Sir Randolph Churchill (1849-95), father of Winston Churchill, dies. At the time of his death, his estate owes Nathaniel "Natty" Rothschild and Rothschild's Bank more than 66,000 pounds, a huge sum at that time. Had this been generally known, it would have caused a major scandal since he had always shown great favor to the Rothschild family and its various business interests. (The Churchills)
1895 Spring The Hitler family moves to Hafeld, Austria, near the old provincial capital of Linz, on the Danube.
1895 May 1 Adolf Hitler enters elementary school at Fischlham, Austria.
1895 June 25 Alois Hitler retires with a comfortable government pension from the Austrian customs service.
1895 Dr. Karl Lueger is elected mayor of Vienna, but is not allowed to take office by the Emperor.
1895 The Austrian government rules that Slovene classes must be introduced in an exclusively German school at Celje in Carniola. This relatively insignificant controversy takes on a symbolic importance to German nationalists, who use it to rally mass support.
1895 Drexel, Morgan and Company is renamed J.P. Morgan and Company, and quickly grows to be one of the most powerful banking houses in the world.
1895 Winter The United States Treasury, practically on the verge of bankruptcy, allows J.P. Morgan and Co. to organize a group of financiers to carry out a private bond sale to replenish the treasury.
1895 December 29 The Jameson Raid on the Boer republic of Transvaal increases anti-British hostility. Jameson led his raiding party of volunteers into the Transvaal hoping to join forces with discontented non-Boer Europeans (Uitlanders) to overthrow the government of President Paul Kruger. Jameson and his men are quickly captured. Cecil Rhodes, a close friend of Jameson, is clearly implicated and soon afterward is forced to resign as Prime Minister of Cape Colony. British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain is cleared of charges, but was probably aware of the conspiracy. After a prison term in Britain, Jameson serves as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1904 to 1908.
1895 The Sphinx, one of the most powerful advocates of the Germanic occult revival, ceases publication. It had been published since 1886 by Wilhelm Hubbe-Schleiden, founder of the first German Theosophical Society at Elberfeld in July 1884.
1895 Communist leader Vladimir Ilich Lenin, is exiled to Siberia.
1896 January 21 Paula Hitler, Adolf's sister, is born in Hafeld, Austria.(Payne)
1896 February 12 Guido von Linz writes an antisemitic article entitled "Die Juden als Staat und Nation" in Karl Wolf's East German Review. (Roots)
1896 June 16 Adolph Ochs meets with J.P. Morgan in New York City. Ochs said that at their first meeting, Morgan rose to greet him, shook his hand and warmly said, "So you're the young man I have heard about. Now, where do I sign the papers." (NY Times, June 26, 1996)
1896 August 18 Adolph Ochs purchases controlling interest in The New York Times for $75,000 ($25,000 of which, he says, is a loan from J. P. Morgan).
1896 August A new German Theosophical Society is founded in Berlin under the presidency of Franz Hartmann.
1896 Franklin D. Roosevelt enters Groton School, a preparatory school in Groton, Massachusetts. The headmaster, Endicott Peabody, an Episcopal clergyman, starts him thinking about a career in public service.
1896 Theodor Herzl publishes The Jewish State, in which he advocates the creation of a Jewish nation-state in Palestine.
1896 November Father Berenger Sauniere begins to spend large amounts on the restoration of Rennes-le-Chateau. He will spend several million dollars over the next twenty years.
1896 Albert Einstein returns to the Zurich Polytechnic, graduating as a secondary school teacher of mathematics and physics in 1900. Two years later, he obtains a position at the Swiss patent office in Bern, and while employed there (1902-09), completes an astonishing range of publications in theoretical physics.
1896 The first modern Olympic Games are held at Athens in Greece. Only thirteen countries compete.
1896 Colonel Georges Picquart, the new chief of French military intelligence, attempts to reopen the Dreyfus case and is dismissed after bringing charges against Major Ferdinand Esterhazy.
1896 Paul Zillmann founds the Metaphysical Review, a monthly periodical devoted to the esoteric tradition.
1897 Paul Zillmann, inspired by the nineteenth-century mystic Eckhartshausen and his ideas for a secret school of illuminates, founds the occult Wald-Loge (the Forest Lodge). Zillman becomes an important link between German occultists and their counterparts in Austria. (Roots)
1897 The Hitler family moves to Lambach, Austria.
1897 April Austrian premier Count Casimir Badeni introduces controversial language decrees, which ruled that all officials in Moravia and Bohemia should be able to speak both German and Czech, which clearly discriminated against Germans. These decrees provoked a nationalist furor throughout the Austro-Hungarian empire.
1897 April 7 The Wieden Singer's Club in Vienna organizes a List festival to commemorate the silver anniversary of List's literary career. List had long been a celebrity amongst the Pan-Germans of Austria. (Roots)
1897 July Adolf Hitler begins choir school at Lambach Abbey.
1897 Summer Bloody riots break out between mobs of ethnic Germans and Austrian police. Hundreds of Vereine (German-oriented organizations) are dissolved by the police as a threat to public order.
1897 August 29 Jewish nationalist Theodor Herzl organizes the first World Zionist Congress at Basel, Switzerland. The 204 delegates to the congress adopt a program calling for "a publicly recognized home for the Jewish people in Palestine." Herzl worked to secure acceptance of his ideas, first from the Jewish philanthropists Edmond Rothschild and Maurice de Hirsch, then from Emperor William II of Germany, Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire, King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, and Pope Pius X.
1897 September 3 The French periodical Le Temps publishes an article claiming that a certain Dr. Mandelstein, Professor at the University of Kiev, in the course of his speech opening the Zionist International Congress said, "The Jews will use all their influence and power to prevent the rise and prosperity of all other nations and are resolved to adhere to their historic destiny i.e. to the conquest of world power." Antisemites took these words very seriously and quickly used them to stir up anti-Jewish sentiments throughout eastern and western Europe.
1897 September 12 Adlof Josef Lanz, now Brother Georg, takes his vows as a Cistercian monk at Heiligenkreuz Abbey. Lanz's novice-master was Nivard Schloegl, a bible scholar and expert on oriental languages. Schloegl disdained the Jews as an arrogant and exclusive religious group, and his bible translations were placed on the Index of Forbidden Books by the Catholic Church because of his antisemitic prejudice.
1897 October 29 Joseph Goebbels is born at Rheydt in the German Rhineland to a lower middle-class Catholic family.
1897 Alfred Dreyfus's brother succeeds in having Major Ferdinand Esterhazy brought to trial. Against all evidence, Esterhazy is acquitted.
1897 Austrian Emperor Franz Josef finally allows Karl Lueger to assume office as mayor of Vienna.
1897 In Germany, Wilhelm Schwaner publishes Der Volkserzieher, one of the earliest völkisch periodicals, which features a swastika on its title-page.
1898 January Novelist Emile Zola publishes an open letter entitled "J'accuse," attacking the French army and bringing the Dreyfus affair to the public's attention. Dreyfus's cause is taken up by French radicals, socialists, and intellectuals. Later that year the major document used against Dreyfus is proven to be a forgery.
1898 January 6 Guido von List is visited by the old catholic bishop of Bohemia, Nittel von Warnsdorf, who congratulates him on "a new epoch in the history of religion." (Balzli; Roots)
1898 Spring Father Georg (Adolf Josef Lanz) is said to have visited Lambach Abbey, spending several weeks studying in the private library of Theoderich Hagn, the former abbot. Hagn had ordered swastikas designs carved on the abbey as early as 1868. (Angebert)
1898 July 30 Former German Chancellor Otto von Bismark dies.
1898 September 19 Father Georg (Adolf Josef Lanz) assumes teaching duties in the seminary at Heiligenkreuz (A). (Daim)
1898 The Marxist Social Democratic Labor party is established in Russia.
1898 Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Stalin) becomes involved in radical political activity.
1898 Georg von Schoenerer launches his Los von Rome (break from Rome) campaign.
1898 Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Trotsky) is arrested and later exiled to Siberia where he soon joins the Social Democratic Party. Trotsky is the son of a well-to-do Jewish farmer from Yanovka in the southern province of Kherson.
1898 Hitler develops an interest in Germanic mythology and mysticism. According to his abbot, he was a good student and a class leader.
1899 January Adolf Hitler leaves choir school at Lambach Abbey.
1899 February 23Hitler's father buys a house near the old Catholic cemetery in Leonding, a suburb of Linz, Austria.
1899 April 11 Father Georg (Adolf Josef Lanz) writes a letter to the authorities of Heiligenkreuz Abbey, complaining of his desire for physical and intellectual freedom. (Heiligenkreuz Abbey Archive)
1899 April 27 Father Georg (Adolf Josef Lanz) renounces his holy vows and leaves Heiligenkreuz Abbey. The abbey register refers to his leaving as a "surrender to the lies of the world and carnal love." (Daim)
1899 August Guido von List is married to Anna Wittek, his second wife. The wedding is celebrated in the evangelical Protestant (Lutheran) church. Like many other Austrian Pan-Germans, List had rejected the Catholic Church. (Austrian Staatsarchiv, Vienna)
1899 Britishman Houston Stewart Chamberlain publishes "The Foundations of the 19th Century." The book's introduction is written by Lord Redesdale, Bertrand Mitford, grandfather of Unity Mitford and a close personal friend of the Wagner family. (The House of Mitford)
1899 Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Stalin) leaves the Tiflis Theological Seminary without graduating and becomes a full-time revolutionary organizer.
1899 Journalist and future statesman Winston Churchill escapes from Boer captivity in South Africa.
1899 Alfred Dreyfus is granted a retrial, but once again is found guilty. Afterward, President Emile Loubet grants him a pardon.
1899 Georg von Schoenerer begins to associate the Pan-German movement with a new Lutheran movement, accounting for about 30,000 protestant conversions in Bohemia, Styria, Carinthia and Vienna between 1899 and 1910.