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1936 The Duke of Kent, King Edward VIII's brother and closest family supporter, dies; some historians say under mysterious circumstances.
1936 January The German government begins a series of trials of members of the religious orders accused of violating the foreign currency laws. Press coverage is hostile to the accused in almost all cases. (Lewy)
1936 January An article in the Catholic Klerusblatt justifies the Nuremberg Laws as indispensable safeguards for the qualitative makeup of the German people.
1936 January 1 The United Palestine Appeal is founded.
1936 January 4 Ambassador Bergen in Rome writes to German foreign minister von Neurath that the Pope is protesting the violations of the Concordat by the Hitler government, and has several times threatened to bring his complaints into the open. It has taken the moderation of Secretary of State Pacelli to prevent a rupture of relations. (Lewy)
1936 January 11 An attempt is made on the life of Romanian Chief Rabbi Jacob Isaac Niemirower.
1936 January 15 Vicar General Riemer of Passau issues instructions allowing sterilized Catholics to receive the sacraments of matrimony, reversing the decision of January 4, 1935. (Lewy)
1936 January 15 Japan withdraws from the London Naval Conference.
1936 January 20 Edward VIII is crowned king of Great Britain.
1936 January 21 British King George V dies.
1936 January 23 Utah Senator William H. King urges the U.S. to open its doors as a haven for Jews fleeing Germany.
1936 January 25 The Catholic Agency of Poland officially condemns antisemitic acts. (Edelheit)
1936 January 29 The funeral of King George V.
1936 January - February Moderate Republicans and leftist parties in Spain form a "Popular Front" in opposition to the conservatives.
1936 February 4 Swiss Nazi Party leader Wilhelm Gustloff is assassinated by David Frankfurter, a Jew.
1936 February 6 The German Ministry of the Interior decrees that a system of records be set up to cover hereditary biological data on all patients in mental hospitals and institutions. (Science)
1936 February 6-16 The Winter Olympics are held in the German resort town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen.
1936 February 16 The "Popular Front" of moderate Republicans and leftists in Spain drives the conservatives out of office in national elections.
1936 February 18 Goebbels issues a decree muzzling the religious press.
1936 February 18 British Major General Sir Neill Malcolm is appointed League of Nations High Commissioner for Refugees from Germany.
1936 February 18 Switzerland bans NSDAP propaganda activities nationwide.
1936 February 26 A military dictatorship is established in Japan.
1936 February 27 The French Parliament ratifies the Franco-Soviet military alliance.
1936 February 27 Mussolini protests the Five-Power Mediterranean Pact.
1936 February 28 London police are ordered to arrest all antisemitic agitators.
1936 February 29 Cardinal Hlond declares in a public letter that "It is true that the Jews are committing frauds, practicing usury, and dealing in white slavery. It is true that in schools, the influence of Jewish youth upon Catholic youth is generally evil, from a religious and ethical point of view. But let us be just. Not all Jews are like that. One does well to prefer his own kind in commercial dealings and to avoid Jewish stores and Jewish stalls in the markets, but it is not permissable to demolish Jewish businesses, break windows, torpedo their houses..." (Lewy)
1936 March Writer and researcher Otto Rahn officially joins the SS. (Roots)
1936 March 3 Italy abolishes private banking.
1936 March 7 German troops re-enter the de-militarized Rhineland in defiance of the Treaty of Locarno.
1936 March 7 German Foreign Minister Konstantin von Neurath informs the other signatories to the Locarno Treaties that Germany now considers those Treaties to have been broken by France. The French military alliance with Russia, von Neurath says, is obviously directed at Germany and consequently Germany will reoccupy the Rhineland. Germany offers to sign a pact of nonaggression with Belgium and France, to sign an Air Force agreement with all Western Powers, and to reenter the League of Nations if its Charter is independent of the Versailles Treaty. None of these proposals are acted upon by the Western Powers.
1936 March 7 Jews in Germany lose their right to vote in elections for the Reichstag. (Persecution)
1936 March Britain, Italy and Belgium at the League of Nations 12-18 Council in London make it clear to France that even if Germany's reoccupation of the Rhineland is a violation of Versailles, it is not cause enough for war.
1936 March 9 Three Jews are murdered at Przytyk in Poland, and a few days later, five more are killed in the village of Stawy. (Atlas)
1936 March 13 Jewish labor groups call for a one day general strike to protest Polish antisemitism.
1936 March 14 Hitler, during a speech in Munich, declares, " I go the way that providence directs for me with all the assurance of a sleepwalker." (Waite)
1936 March 14 Socialists, Communists and Syndicalists burn churches in the center of Madrid.
1936 March 15 The Council for German Jewry is established in London.
1936 March 16 Hitler announces a new policy of military conscription.
1936 March 18 Catholic leaders in Austria demand a numerus clausus against Jews.
1936 March 22 Sir Oswald Mosley makes an antisemitic speech that almost causes a riot in London's Albert Hall.
1936 March 22 Italy, Austria amd Hungary sign an anti-Nazi mutual defense treaty in Rome.
1936 March 23 British troops evacuate Jews from Hebron in Palestine.
1936 March 25 The U.S., Britain and France sign the London Naval Convention.
1936 March 25 Nazis confiscate property belonging to German and Jewish writers who voluntarily went into exile.
1936 March 29 Hitler receives 99% of the votes in a referendum, receiving 44.5 million votes out of 45.5 million registered voters.
1936 March 29 SS guard formations are renamed SS-Totenkopfverbande and their number increases to 3,500. (Edelheit)
1936 March 30 Britain announces that it will build 38 new warships.
1936 April Otto Rahn is promoted to SS-Unterscharfuehrer, a noncommissioned officer (NCO).
1936 April 7 Abyssinia again appeals to the League of Nations for aid against Italy.
1936 April 7 A Socialist vote in the Spanish parliament outs President Alcala Zamora.
1937 April 17 The Polish parliament passes a bill outlawing Jewish ritual slaughter (Shechita).
1936 April 17 Leftist unions stage a general strike in Madrid.
1936 April 22 The Lithuianian government announces that all Jewish teachers institutes will be closed.
1936 April 24-27 Anti-Jewish demonstrations break out in Czechoslovakia after screenings of the film Golem.
1936 April 28 King Farouk is coronated in Egypt.
1936 May The German government steps up its drive against the religious orders, instituting a number of trials for sexual perversity. The proceedings are given detailed and lurid coverage by the German press. Catholic monasteries are described as breeding places of filth and vice. (Lewy)
1936 May 2 Haile Selassie flees Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Addis Ababa is looted and set afire by mobs.
1936 May 3 Italian troops capture Addis Ababa.
1936 May 3 A fundraiser for Jewish refugees at Madison Square Garden draws 16,000 people.
1936 May 5 Mussolini announces total victory over Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Although the League of Nations had imposed an embargo against Italy, it failed to include a vital item, oil, thereby discrediting itself once again.)
1936 May 7 Britain proposes a plan for regulating worldwide arms traffic.
1936 May 8 Haile Selassie arrives in Palestine.
1936 May 8 Oswald Spengler, renowned German historian and philosopher best known for his pessimistic philosophy of history, dies in Munich.
1936 May 9 Abyssinia (Ethiopia) is annexed into the Italian empire under King Victor Emanuel II.
1936 May 10 The League of Nations votes to leave its sanctions against Italy in place.
1936 May 10 Manuel Azana is elected president of the Spanish Republic.
1936 May 11 Pope Pius XI describes Communism as the "greatest evil to men."
1936 May 13 Britain accuses Italy of encouraging the Arab revolt in Palestine.
1936 May 16 General Felicjan Skladkowski becomes prime minister of Poland.
1936 May 18 The British Colonial Office announces formation of the Peel Commission to investigate the disturbances in Palestine.
1936 May 18 Haile Selassie thanks Jews for their support in defending Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
1936 May 21 Britain warns Italy not to meddle in the affairs of Palestine and Egypt.
1936 May 21 Kurt von Schuschnigg is elected leader of the Austrian Fatherland Front.
1936 May 23 Catholic bishops in Holland demand a ban on the Dutch Nazi party. (Edelheit)
1936 May 24 The Belgian Fascist party, the Rexists, win 21 seats in parliament.
1936 May 26 Austria announces its intention not to attend the Geneva conference on German refugees.
1936 June A Swiss Catholic reportedly asks children to pray for the death of Hitler. The German press quickly accuses all Catholics of being in sympathy with sedition. (Lewy)
1936 June 1 Chancellor Schuschnigg meets with Mussolini, who persuades him to agree to a German-Austrian pact.
1936 June 2 One hundred nineteen Nazis are indicted in Warsaw for conspiring to overthrow the Polish government.
1936 June 4 Leon Blum becomes the first socialist and the first Jew to serve as premier of France. Presiding over the Popular Front coalition of Socialists, Communists, and liberals, he responds to worker unrest with reforms such as paid vacations, collective bargaining, and the 40-hour work week.
1936 June 6 Xavier Vallat, a member of the French Chamber of Delegates, attacks Leon Blum for his Jewish origin.
1936 June 7 Cardinal Faulhaber, in a sermon, declares "A lunatic abroad has had an attack of madness -- does this justify wholesale suspicion of German Catholics? We feel offended on account of this questioning of our loyalty to the state. We will today give an answer, a Christian answer: Catholic men, we will now pray together, a paternoster for the life of the Fuehrer. This our answer." (AB Munich; Lewy) (See June 1936 above)
1936 June 9 Mussolini appoints Count Galeazzo Ciano Italian foreign minister.
1936 June 12 The first Arab attack is made on British troops in Palestine. (Edelheit)
1936 June 13 Britain is forced to declare martial law in Palestine.
1936 June 17 Himmler is appointed chief of the German police, both uniformed and civilian.
1936 June 20 The Bavarian Political Police issue orders to take into custody all priests who dare to criticize an order dismissing all nuns teaching in the public schools, which is scheduled to be announced the following day. Vicar General Buchwieser of Munich (in charge of the diocese in the absence of Cardinal Faulhaber) instructs the clergy to read a joint pastoral letter of the Bavarian bishops criticizing this order.That same evening the government gives in and instructs the police to merely record the names of priests who read the pastoral letter. (Lewy)
1936 June 20 Austria bans all political meetings and street demonstrations.
1936 June 21 The Bavarian government publicly reads the order dismissing all Catholic nuns teaching in the public schools.
1936 June 21 Anti-Jewish riots break out in Bucharest, Romania.
1936 June 27 Germany declares its support for Danzig's independence.
1936 June 30 A Jewish general strike is held to protest Polish antisemitism
1936 June 30 France outlaws the French Fascist Party.
1936 June 30 Haile Selassie addresses the League of Nations.
1936 July 8 The Polish government declares that the German-sponsored movement for Danzig independence is belligerent act (causa belli) that could lead to war.
1936 July 8 Arabs send a memorandum to the British government demanding an end to Jewish immigration to Palestine.
1936 July 8 Hitler guarantees Austrian independence.
1936 July 9 Goebbels orders a halt to anti-Jewish propaganda until after the Berlin Olympics.
1936 July 10 The British House of Commons debates the activities of Sir Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists.
1936 July 11 A German-Austrian friendship treaty is signed.
1936 July 12 Sachsenhausen concentration camp is opened.
1936 July 15 The League of Nations and Western Powers lift economic sanctions against Italy.
1936 July 15 Professor Mollison, an anthropologist at the University of Munich, recommends to the Ministry of the Interior that the costs of expert reports on "Aryan" or Jewish origins should be recovered from the applicants. "It is not advisable to provide such a time-consuming investigation free for those who claim Aryan origins when they know they are not entitled to do so." (Science)
1936 July 17 The Spanish Civil War begins. A number of generals led by General Francisco Franco provoke revolts against the Republican (Socialist) governments in Spain and Spanish Morocco. Franco is strongly supported by the Catholic Church, the nobility, the military and the Fascists. Hitler and Mussolini immediately sent arms and men to help Franco. Several months later Stalin begins shipping arms to the "loyalists." The U.S. adheres to a policy of strict neutrality, but thousands of Communists and anti-Fascists volunteers from the United States and Britain go to Spain to serve with the republicans and are organized with the aid of the Soviet Comintern.
1936 July 17 France nationalizes its munitions industry.
1936 July 18 The Nazi-controlled Danzig Senate nullifies the Free City's constitution, prohibits Jewish ritual slaughter and prevents Jews from renewing leases and business licenses.
1936 July 21 Members of the Peel Committee (British Royal Committee on Palestine) are named.
1936 July 23 Representatives of Britain, France and Belgium meet in London to discuss German violation of the Locarno Pact in the Rhineland.
1936 July 26 Italy and Germany begin assisting General Franco's forces in Spain.
1936 July 26 Father Charles Coughlin, in an address to 5,000 American farmers claims that the Roosevelt administration is a tool of the Rothschild banking dynasty.
1936 July 26 The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) announces that during 1935 it contributed $300,000 to Jewish welfare in Germany.
1936 Summer Hitler finds a strange rock he calls Wotan's Hand and mounts it in a special glass case, displaying it as though it were a holy relic.
1936 August A gathering organized by the American Forward Movement in Asheville, N.C., collapses when a rabbi attempts to attend the conference.
1936 August 1 The 1936 Olympic Games begin in Berlin. A Black American, Jesse Owens, wins 4 gold medals. For propaganda reasons, most anti-Jewish measures are avoided for the duration of the games, and slogans are removed from the streets.
1936 August The Messerschmitt ME-109, a highly successful single-seat fighter, is first publically displayed at the 1936 Olympic games in Berlin. It was subsequently tested and proven during the Spanish Civil War.
1936 August 1 France declares a policy of non-intervention in the Spanish civil war.
1936 August 6 The U.S. declares its strict neutrality in the Spanish civil war.
1936 August 14 Arthur S. Leese, publisher of the Fascist, a periodical of the Imperial Fascist League, is tried in London on charges of seditious libel against British Jews.
1936 August 14 Count Jean Szembeck reports that during a recent conversation with Joachim von Ribbentrop that the German Foreign Minister "insisted upon the necessity of Polish-German collaboration." Both Poland and Germany," Ribbentrop said, "are under the threat of a very great danger. Bolshevism plans to destroy all of the fruits of Western civilization"
1936 August 15 Arab groups in Palestine attack 38 Jewish settlements.
1936 August 19 The first Stalinist trials of "counterrevolutionaries" opens. All defendents will be sentenced to death.
1936 August 23 The German Evangelical Church publishes its manifesto.
1936 August 24 Two-year mandatory military service becomes compulsory in Germany.
1936 August 24 Lev Kamenev is executed after being found guilty of treason in the first Stalinist "show trial" of the Great Purge.
1936 August 25 Grigory Zinoviev is executed after being arrested and falsely charged with having organized a "terrorist counterrevolutionary group allied with the Gestapo."
1936 August 26 Britain and Egypt sign a twenty-year alliance in Cairo, ending the British military occupation of Egypt, except for the Canal Zone (Suez).
1936 September Karl Maria Weisthor (Wiligut) is promoted to SS-Brigadefuehrer (Brigadier) on Himmler's personal staff. An undated typescript in the Bundesarchiv in Koblenz is a blueprint for the reestablishment of the Irminist religion in Germany, with detailed provisions for restrictions on the priesthood, the nationalization of all ecclesiastical property, and the restoration and conservation of ancient monuments. (Roots)
1936 September 4 The Berlin Labor Court rules that German employees who marry Jews or other "non-Aryans" may be dismissed from their jobs.
1936 September 8 France places an embargo on all military exports to Spain.
1936 September 9 Goebbels accuses Czechoslovakia of providing secret bases for Soviet aircraft.
1936 September 14 After a majority of the Spanish Catholic hierarchy has sided with General Franco and called for a crusade against Communism, Pope Pius XI gives his blessing to "those who have assumed the difficult and dangerous task of defending and restoring the rights and honor of Church and religion." (Lewy)
1936 September 18 David Lloyd George publicly expresses enthusiam for Hitler and his regime after visiting the Fuehrer in Germany.
1936 September 20 The Gestapo arrests a number of well-known rabbis and Zionist leaders without charging them with any crimes.
1936 September 21 Arthur Leese and two other British Fascists are found guilty of libeling and slandering British Jews.
1936 September 24 Jewish-owned employment agencies in Germany are ordered to cease operation.
1936 September 27 The Gestapo closes the Association of Independent Artisans of the Jewish Faith, a German Jewish mutual aid society.
1936 October 1 General Franco is declared Spanish head of state at Burgos.
1936 October 4 Hans Frank draws up a program to remove all Jewish influence from German jurisprudence. (Edelheit)
1936 October 4 The Reich Chamber of Culture orders all Jewish art dealers in Berlin to close their galleries by the end of the year.
1936 October 13 Special courts are set up by the German Ministry of Justice to try cases covered by the Nuremberg Laws
1936 October 15 Jewish teachers in Germany are forbidden to tutor "Aryan" children.
1936 October 20 Polish officials close the Warsaw Trade School after anti-Jewish riots.
1936 October 21 Julius Streicher initiates a new anti-Jewish campaign with an exhibition entitled "World Enemy Number One: Jewish Bolshevism."
1936 October 22 Belgium declares martial law to combat Rexist violence.
1936 October 22-25 Spanish Republicans (Socialists) transfer Spain's gold reserves to the Soviet Union. (Edelheit)
1936 October 25 The Rome-Berlin Axis is established. Cooperation between Germany and Italy in Spain has helped cement a vague understanding, which is now formally concluded.
1936 November At Petrovaradim in Yugoslavia, the editor of an antisemitic newspaper modelled on Streicher's "Der Stürmer" is tried and acquitted. (Atlas)
1936 November Dr. Ritter, a psychologist and psychiatrist, begins his work on Gypsies in the Section for Research on Race-hygiene and Population Biology in the Reich Department of Health in Berlin, funded by the DFG. (Science)
1936 November 4 President Roosevelt is relected, carrying every state except Maine and Vermont.
1936 November 5 The Iron Guard (Legionaries) denounces the Romanian government as a tool of Jews and Freemasons.
1936 November 7 The so-called International Brigade, composed primarily of Socialists and Communists, arrives in Madrid and a battle for the city begins.
1936 November 8 The National Christian Party stages the largest antisemitic demonstration in Romanian History.
1936 November 12 The opening session of the Peel Commission begins in Palestine.
1936 November 13 The Research Department for the Jewish Question (Forschungsabteilung judenfrage) opens in Munich.
1936 November 15 The Romanian Ministry of Labor announces that Jewish refugees will not be allowed to establish themselves in Romania. (Edelheit)
1936 November 18 Germany and Italy officially recognize General Franco as head of the Spanish state.
1936 November 23 The Nazis blacklist some 2,000 works written by Jewish authors.
1936 November 25 The Anti-Comintern Pact is signed by Germany and Japan against Russia. They will soon be joined by Italy
1936 November 25 Chaim Weizmann testifies before the Peel Commission in Palestine.
1936 November 29 The National Council for Palestine, located in New York, urges the Peel Commission to insist on Britain honoring its obligation to establish a Jewish homeland in Palesine.
1936 November 29 Soviet Prime Minister Vlacheslav Molotov denounces the Nazi persecution of German Jews. Antisemites claim Molotov and Stalin are both married to Jewesses.
1936 November 30 Moshe Shertok, head of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency, testifies before the Peel Commission, blaming the Colonial Office and its restrictive immigration policy as the reason for "illegal" Jewish immigration to Palestine. (Edelheit)
1936 December 1 The Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend) becomes an official agency of the Reich.
1936 December 1 President Roosevelt attends the Pan-American Conference in Buenos Aires.
1936 December 3 All Jewish charitable organizations in Germany lose their tax exempt status.
1936 December 6 A new Nazi press campaign aimed at totally eliminating Jews from German economic life is begun.
1936 December 7 The last Jewish department store in Germany is "Aryanized."
1936 December 9 The trial of David Frankfurter, the Jew accused of assassinating Swiss Nazi leader Wilhelm Gustloff, begins in Grisons state court in Switzerland.
1936 December 9 King Edward VIII sends a coded telegram to Baron Eugene de Rothschild requesting permission to stay at Rothschild's Castle Enzesfeld near Vienna. (Cowles)
1936 December 10 King Edward VIII abdicates the British throne in London.
1936 December 11 King Edward VIII now the Duke of Windsor quickly leaves the country and begins an extended stay at Baron Rothschild's castles in Austria. (Cowles)
1936 December The Duke of York (father of Queen, Elizabeth) becomes King George VI of England.
1936 December 12 Chiang Kai-shek declares war on Japan.
1936 December 14 David Frankfurter is sentenced to 18 years in a Swiss prison for killing Nazi leader Wilhelm Gustloff.
1936 December 18 The Nazis proclaim an anti-Jewish boycott limited to Breslau.
1936 December 20 Walter Gross, chief of the Nazi Racial Bureau, announces a nationwide racial propaganda campaign.
1936 December 25 The U.S. announces new agreements that facilitate trade with Germany. (Edelheit)
1936 December 27 The Basque autonomoius government, headquartered in Guernica, seizes a German vessel in Spainish waters. It will be released two days later.
1936 December 27 Britain and France agree on a mutual policy of non-intervention in the Spanish civil war.
1936 Action Francaise is officially dissolved by the French government for complicity in a physical attack on Leon Blum. (Surviving clandestinely, Action Francaise contributes to the ideology of the Vichy Government during World War II. It disintegrates in 1944 when France is liberated and Maurras, its leader, is imprisoned for collaboration.)
1936 Ioannis Metaxas establishes a Greek dictatorship.
1936 In Lithuania, where severe restrictions had been imposed on the number of Jews allowed to enter universities, not a single Jewish student is granted admittance to study medicine. (Atlas)
1936 The influential Jesuit magazine Civilta Cattolica published in Rome emphasizes that opposition to Nazi racialism should not be interpreted as a rejection of anti-semitism, and argues, as the magazine had done since 1890, that the Christian world (though without un-Christian hatred) must defend itself against the Jewish threat by suspending the civic rights of Jews and returning them to the ghettos. (Lewy)
1936 The German government gives the National Association of German Catholics Abroad a sum of more than 139,000 marks, in 1936 alone, for its pro-German and pro-Nazi activities among the German minorities of Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. (Lewy)
1936 A Polish Jesuit periodical asserts that it is necessary "to provide separate schools for Jews, so that our children will not be infected with their lower morality." (Atlas)
1936 The Iron Guard, an influential antisemitic organization in Romania, bombs a Jewish theater in Timisoara, killing two Jews and injuring many more. (Atlas)
1936 Diana Mitford, Unity Mitford's sister, marries Sir Oswald Mosley in Berlin. Their wedding reception is held at the home of Joseph Goebbel's. (Guiness)