CANARIS, ADMIRAL WILHELM Head of the Abwehr (German military Intelligence) until it was abolished by Hitler in February 1944. He was later arrested and executed after a failed attempt upon Hitler's life.
CHAMBERLAIN, HOUSTON STEWART (1855-1927) Writer and cultural philosopher. Also Richard Wagner's son-in-law. Although the son of a British admiral, he chose to become a German citizen before World War I. His book The Foundations of the Twentieth Century glorified the "Aryan spirit" and strongly enfluenced the Nazis' racial theories. In late1923, Chamberlain "officially" identified Adolf Hitler as "the long-awaited German Messiah sent by God to the German people."
CHAMBERLAIN, NEVILLE (1869-1940) Cousin of Houston Stewart Chamberlain and British Prime Minister who represented England at the Munich Conference. Chamberlain's policy of appeasement toward Hitler, though highly praised at the time, is now almost universally criticized. After being replaced by Churchill in May 1940, he died suddenly on November 9, 1940. (See Glossary: November 9th)
CHIANG KAI-SHEK (1887-19??) Head of the Kuomintang Party and ruler of Nationalist China before and during World War II. As the leader (Generalissimo) of an unruly coalition of "warlords," some little more than bandits, who had misruled China since 1911, his control was unsteady, his armies badly equipped, poorly trained and led. Chiang's skill lay in the political arena, where he not only managed to stay on top of his cut-throat coalition, but also succeeded in selling himself as a pillar of democracy to the American public.
CHURCHILL, WINSTON SPENCER (1874-19??) British politician and wartime leader. Most contemporary historians consider Churchill to be one of the most far-seeing statesmen of the 20th Century, describing him as a steadfast opponent of both Fascism and Communism, long before the outbreak of World War II. Others, however, have long challenged these judgments.
COHEN, BENJAMIN V. Important adviser to President Roosevelt and a major figure in the New Deal.
CRIPPS, SIR STAFFORD (1889-1952) Labour member of Churchill's war cabinet and ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1940 to 1942. Hitler singled Cripps out for special hatred, calling him a "secret" Jew, "a man without roots, a demagogue and a liar." Hitler told a private meeting of his Gauleiter at the end of 1939, "The Jews may deceive the world... but they cannot deceive me. I know that they are guilty of starting this war -- they alone and nobody else." (Waite)
CROWLEY, ALEISTER (1875-1947) English magician and esoteric who founded a number of occult lodges and secret socities. His Book of Laws (1908) was oriented toward various fascist principles. Hitler was said to be familiar with Crowley's writing and theories, most probably through his association with the Thule Society.
CZERNIAKOW, ADAM (1880-1942) Chairman of the Warsaw Judenrat (Jewish Council). His job was extremely difficult and his methods of seeking to protect the interests of Warsaw Jews remain controversial. He committed suicide on July 23, 1942, the day after receiving a German order for the "resettlement" (deportation to killing centers) of the ghetto population.
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